Pentadecanoic Acid (C15: 0)
|Pentadecanoic Acid (C15: 0) C15H30O2|
|CASNo = 1002-84-2|
|PubChem = 13849|
Pentadecanoic Acid (C15: 0), also known as pentadecylic acid, is a fatty acid, like omega-3 and omega-6, but unlike them, pentadecanoic acid (C15: 0) has no double bonds in its main chain, making it a resilient molecule that is resistant to oxidation. Pentadecylic acid occurs in hydrogenated mutton fat, ruminant meat, some types of fish, milk fat from cows and some plants.
In 2005, Hulbert proposed the membrane pacemaker theory of aging. This theory emphasizes that the fatty acid composition of membranes is a critical factor in lipid peroxidation and consequently in the rate of aging and determination of lifespan. Indeed, it has been suggested that the specific acyl composition of membranes works as a timer to determinate longevity in different species. Long-lived animals have a low degree of fatty acid unsaturation in cell membranes due to decreases in PUFAs and higher levels of less unsaturated fatty acids, changes that make them more resistant to lipid peroxidation in vivo.
- Venn-Watson, S. K., & Butterworth, C. N. (2022). Broader and safer clinically-relevant activities of pentadecanoic acid compared to omega-3: Evaluation of an emerging essential fatty acid across twelve primary human cell-based disease systems. PloS one, 17(5), e0268778. PMID: 35617322 PMC9135213 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268778
- Venn-Watson, S., & Schork, N. J. (2023). Pentadecanoic Acid (C15: 0), an Essential Fatty Acid, Shares Clinically Relevant Cell-Based Activities with Leading Longevity-Enhancing Compounds. Nutrients, 15(21), 4607. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214607
- Venn-Watson, S., Lumpkin, R., & Dennis, E. A. (2020). Efficacy of dietary odd-chain saturated fatty acid pentadecanoic acid parallels broad associated health benefits in humans: could it be essential?. Scientific reports, 10(1), 8161. PMID: 32424181 PMC7235264 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-64960-y
- Jenkins, B., West, J. A., & Koulman, A. (2015). A review of odd-chain fatty acid metabolism and the role of pentadecanoic acid (C15: 0) and heptadecanoic acid (C17: 0) in health and disease. Molecules, 20(2), 2425-2444. PMID: 25647578 PMC6272531 DOI: 10.3390/molecules20022425
- Hulbert, A. J. , Pamplona, R. , Buffenstein, R. , & Buttemer, W. A. (2007). Life and death: Metabolic rate, membrane composition, and life span of animals. Physiological Reviews, 87, 1175–1213. PMID: 17928583 DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00047.2006
- Pamplona, R., & Barja, G. (2007). Highly resistant macromolecular components and low rate of generation of endogenous damage: two key traits of longevity. Ageing research reviews, 6(3), 189-210. PMID: 17702671 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2007.06.002
- Martín, M. G., & Dotti, C. G. (2022). Plasma membrane and brain dysfunction of the old: Do we age from our membranes?. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10, 1031007. PMID: 36274849 PMC9582647 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2022.1031007
- Venn-Watson SK, Butterworth CN (2022) Broader and safer clinically-relevant activities of pentadecanoic acid compared to omega-3: Evaluation of an emerging essential fatty acid across twelve primary human cell-based disease systems. PLoS ONE 17(5): e0268778. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0268778