Six major anti-aging drugs and their related signal pathways,

From Longevity Wiki

Six major anti-aging drugs and their related signal pathways (with 6 circuit illustrations) according to Nannan Du et al. and Qiang Sun:[1]

  1. . Rapamycin and the Aging-Related mTOR Signal Pathway
  2. . Metformin and the Aging-Related AMPK Signal Pathway
  3. . Acarbose and Aging-Related Nutrient Signal Pathways
  4. . NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and the Aging-Related SIRT1 Signal Pathway
  5. . Lithium and Telomeres Length Regulation
  6. . NSAIDs (Aspirin ets) and the Aging-Related Energy Metabolism
  7. . ACE inhibitors: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors decrease the formation of angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor, and increase the level of bradykinin, a peptide vasodilator. Medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure. Analysis indicated that the lifespan effects of Captopril are additive to other known life-extending interventions (and genes), including the insulin/IGF-1 pathway (age-1 and daf-2), caloric restriction (eat-2), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase (sir-2.1), heat shock (hsf-1), and mitochondria insufficiency (isp-1).[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
  8. . SGLT2 inhibitors: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are diabetes drugs that help lower a person's blood sugar by pushing more glucose out of their body in urine. In anti-aging research in mice SGLT2s have been shown to extend lifespan.[9]

We added the last two drugs to the list based on the fact that they can significantly prolong the life of laboratory animals.


  1. Du, N., Yang, R., Jiang, S., Niu, Z., Zhou, W., Liu, C., ... & Sun, Q. (2024). Anti-Aging Drugs and the Related Signal Pathways. Biomedicines, 12(1), 127.
  2. Le, D., Brown, L., Malik, K., & Murakami, S. (2021). Two opposing functions of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that links hypertension, dementia, and aging. International journal of molecular sciences, 22(24), 13178. PMID: 34947975 PMC8707689 DOI: 10.3390/ijms222413178
  3. Strong, R., Miller, R. A., Cheng, C. J., Nelson, J. F., Gelfond, J., Allani, S. K., ... & Harrison, D. E. (2022). Lifespan benefits for the combination of rapamycin plus acarbose and for captopril in genetically heterogeneous mice. Aging Cell, 21(12), e13724. PMC9741502
  4. Spindler, S. R., Mote, P. L., & Flegal, J. M. (2016). Combined statin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor treatment increases the lifespan of long-lived F1 male mice. Age, 38, 379-391. PMC5266223
  5. Kumar, S., Dietrich, N., & Kornfeld, K. (2016). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor extends Caenorhabditis elegans life span. PLoS genetics, 12(2), e1005866.
  6. Ferder, L. E. O. N., Inserra, F. E. L. I. P. E., Romano, L. U. I. S., Ercole, L. I. L. I. A. N. A., & Pszenny, V. I. V. I. A. N. A. (1993). Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on mitochondrial number in the aging mouse. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 265(1), C15-C18.
  7. Santos, E. L., de Picoli Souza, K., da Silva, E. D., Batista, E. C., Martins, P. J. F., D’Almeida, V., & Pesquero, J. B. (2009). Long term treatment with ACE inhibitor enalapril decreases body weight gain and increases life span in rats. Biochemical pharmacology, 78(8), 951-958. PMID: 19549507 DOI: 10.1016/j.bcp.2009.06.018
  8. Takeshita, H., Yamamoto, K., Mogi, M., Nozato, S., & Rakugi, H. (2023). Is the anti-aging effect of ACE2 due to its role in the renin-angiotensin system?—Findings from a comparison of the aging phenotypes of ACE2-deficient, Tsukuba hypertensive, and Mas-deficient mice—. Hypertension Research, 46(5), 1210-1220. PMID: 36788301 PMC9925940 DOI: 10.1038/s41440-023-01189-y
  9. Miller, R. A., Harrison, D. E., Allison, D. B., Bogue, M., Debarba, L., Diaz, V., ... & Strong, R. (2020). Canagliflozin extends life span in genetically heterogeneous male but not female mice. JCI insight, 5(21). PMC7710304